United States and Mexico, the border and the

 The relations of the United States with Mexico, discounting a few years of lull, almost always were tense. Without having significant geographical accidents that would prevent traffic from one side to another, the line of separation between the two countries, fixed by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, February 1848, resembles a revolving door. With the extraordinary growth of the American economy in the twentieth century, thousands of Mexicans, through the fords of the Rio Grande, or through every possible means through the thorny, deserted lands, reached the other side of the border in search of a life best. The US government, tired of hunting them with patrols and customs guards, wants to end that corridor by lifting, from 2007, an extensive more than a thousand kilometers.
The Spanish kingdom of North America
 It was the Aragonese navigator, Don Tristan de Luna y Arellano (1519 - 1571), who was the first to establish a settlement in West Florida in 1559. He was part of the list of Spanish conquistadors, whose most famous and famous name was Hernán Cortés, who had landed a little lower in Mexico forty years earlier in 1519. The location chosen by Tristán de Luna was Pensacola Bay on the Gulf of Mexico, and had its short fate blocked by a devastating hurricane that two years later, in 1561, he destroyed the huts newly erected by the sailors and destroyed the small fleet. A better settlement was that of St. Augustine, which was founded on the Atlantic coast of Florida by Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles in 1565, and became, in fact, the first Hispanic settlement affirmed by those bands.
 The west coast of the American continent, in turn, was only occupied by Spanish missions during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when a veritable necklace of reductions (San Diego, Santa Ana, Santa Monica, Santa Bárbara, Santa Maria, Santa Cruz, San Jose, Santa Rosa, Los Angeles, San Francisco, etc ...) stretched along the shores of the Pacific Ocean between 1602 and 1806.
 The two Spanish-controlled ocean sides, in an arc of more than 6,000 kilometers, that comprised the areas of Texas (subdivided between New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado) and California, were part of the Iberian America. An immense semi-unoccupied area populated by Apaches, Navajos, Comanches, and numerous other Indian tribes, administratively submitted to the viceroyalty of New Spain (1525-1821), with capital in Mexico City. Territory that was incorporated to the Mexican republic after the Independence, until the disastrous general Santa Ana lost it to the United States in the War American-Mexican of 1846-8. At the time, Mexico was forced to cede 55% of its territory: that is 1. 360,000 km². A loan that was supplemented a few years later by the Gadsden Purchase of 1853-4 which involved the purchase of another 70,770 km² of frontier territory.
The Bolton Theory
 This clamorous presence of the Spanish possessions of North America, over the years, was simply banished from the teaching of history in the United States. The students were led to believe that all the thousands of acres integrated into the Union were a no man's land, a colossal emptiness, a desert awaiting the Yankee settlers on their triumphal march through the western plains. It was against this "forgetting" that the historian Herbert Eugene Bolton turned when he published his seminal essay on Spanish Borderer, the Spanish Frontier (Yale University edition, 1921). It was unacceptable for him to extinguish the presence of the Franciscan reductions, the ranchos and prisons erected, and the Spaniards, which formed a collar of stands stretching from one ocean to the other. How could Americans ignore the names of most of those states, cities, and landforms that kept their names from Spanish conquerors and settlers? It was enough to look at the maps of the western and southern states of the United States to verify this.
 His intention was to shift the focus of US historiographical attention-centered excessively on the annals of the Union's Thirteen Founding Colonies-to the West, to the Gulf of Mexico, and to California. The history of the United States could not be understood in relation to European countries, but in conjunction with the other continental nations.
 In a communique made at a meeting of historians in Canada, he stated that "in my own country the study of the Thirteen British Colonies and the United States in isolation has obscured the diverse and varied factors of its development, propelling the rise of a nation of chauvinists. A similar distortion occurred in the teaching and writing of the national history of other American countries "(47th Annual Meeting of American.

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